The beginning of the development of colonialism as a world phenomenon dates back to the end of the XV – beginning of the XVI century.
This circumstance caused quite understandable fears of neighboring states – Czechoslovakia, Romania, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, who created a military-political alliance – the Lesser Entente.
Karl Habsburg and the legitimists sought to restore the monarchy and twice in 1921 attempted a coup to bring Charles to the royal throne. However, Horthy refused to relinquish power, citing the position of the Entente and the Lesser Entente. In November 1921, the National Assembly passed a law abolishing the rights of Karl Habsburg.
M. Horthy’s regime, established in Hungary in 1920-1921, was authoritarian. The almost unlimited power of the head of state was combined with the preservation of parliament and some elements of parliamentary democracy – universal suffrage, opposition, including the Social Democratic, parties. The Hortists failed to create their own mass fascist party. With no mass social support, Hortism relied on a whole system of legal and secret alliances and societies, such as the Awakening Union of Hungarians and others, with the Ethelkez Union or the Exa Council, led by the Council of Seven Leaders. Horthy was considered the "invisible head of the union" and controlled the activities of all these organizations.
Hungary’s economic situation was stabilized only in 1924-1926 p. with loans from the United States, Great Britain and France. The break with Austria deprived the industry of a strong competitor, which led to a significant growth of the textile industry. Heavy industry began to develop, including mechanical engineering.
There have been no significant changes in agriculture. As a result of the agrarian reform, only 1% of the arable land was distributed among the peasants, mostly wealthy, supporters of Horthy. Almost half of peasant families did not have land, while large landowners owned more than 30%.
In the second half of the 1930s, the country’s domestic and foreign policies began to be determined by right-wing forces. After Hitler came to power in Germany, National Socialist groups, which in 1935 united in the Cross Arrows party, became active in Hungary. German-Hungarian consultations at the highest level have become regular.
In August 1938, during negotiations between Horthy and Hitler and Foreign Minister Ribbentrop in Berlin, an agreement was reached on a joint military action against Czechoslovakia. Hungarian ruling circles became involved in the fairway of Germany’s military policy, becoming its close partner.
World History: 1914-1939. Textbook / Compilers Ya. M. Berdychivsky, TV Ladychenko. – K., 1999. Encyclopedia of World History. – K., 2000.
The world colonial system in the East and in Africa: formation. Abstract
The main stages of the formation of colonial empires of European states. Types of colonial policy
The main stages of the formation of colonial empires of European states
Colonialism – a rather complex on a global scale, dating back to the distant past of mankind, it arose with the advent of the state, existed in the slave and feudal era. Actually, the words "colony" "colonialism" come from the Latin terms "columns" "colonies" which meant various forms of dependence of the rural population in ancient Rome. Over time, the word "colony" acquired an independent meaning: so began to call the settlements created by people from another country, such colonies-settlements were owned by Ancient Egypt, and Greece, and Rome, and other states.
During the feudal era, colonialism gained its greatest development during the sharp escalation of internal contradictions in European countries. So in the XI-XIII centuries. large groups of impoverished people in Western Europe, led by feudal knights, set out on crusades to the Middle East to liberate the Holy Sepulcher. The Crusaders established feudal colonies there, most of whose inhabitants were local conquered by them. But these states did not last long – less than two centuries.
The beginning of the development of colonialism as a world phenomenon dates back to the end of the XV – beginning of the XVI century. and is associated with the establishment of capitalist relations in Western Europe. Increasing demand for gold, which has become a kind of universal commodity, has played a particularly important role in the desire of Europeans to search for new lands. The fragmentation of feudal possessions and the ruin of part of the feudal lords, the intensification of rivalry between individual feudal clans also caused the need for new ways to the East and new lands. But ties between medieval Europe and the Middle East and through intermediary trade with India and China were severely curtailed by Turkish conquests.
Significant impetus to the development of colonialism was given by the Great Geographical Discoveries, which determined the two main directions of European colonial conquests: across the Atlantic to America and around Africa across the Indian Ocean to Asia. The pioneers of colonial conquests were not the most economically developed, but with the greatest experience of shipping and maritime trade of the country – Portugal and Spain. Through Pope Alexander VI in 1493, they apparently concluded, for the first time in history, an agreement on the territorial division of the world, clarified on June 7 of the following year by the Treaty of Tordesillas. The border passed through both poles and crossed the Atlantic at a distance of 370 leagues (more than 2 thousand km) from the westernmost point of the Cape Verde Islands, about 49 degrees west longitude.
Lands to the east of this line were recognized as possessions of Portugal, and to the west – Spain. But other European powers, especially England and France, rejected these encroachments; the British write an lab report online, for example, soon proclaimed the principle of freedom of the seas, which balanced all Christian countries in their rights to new lands. Both the Portuguese and Spanish, and later the Dutch, British, French, German, and Belgian colonial systems, were eventually established by force.
In the East and in Africa, Europeans faced societies with different levels of development – from primitive, tribal to feudal and so-called Asian. In military and technical terms, these societies were inferior to the colonizers, whose advantage grew with the rapid development of industry, science and technology in Europe.
After Vasco da Gama circumnavigated Africa and reached India in 1498, the Portuguese subjugated the rich city-states of the East African coast, the Persian Gulf, the West Indies, and Southeast Asia. But they created only strongholds on the coast and rarely moved deep into the occupied territories, so later most of the Portuguese possessions in Asia passed into the hands of the Netherlands and Britain. The islands of Cape Verde, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique, and several colonial cities in India centered in Goa, East Timor, and Macau in southern China remained under African rule.
In the XVII century. in Western Europe there were so-called East India companies – British (1600-1858), Dutch (1602-1798) and French (1664-1770, 1785-1793), which received the right to seize new lands in the East, their virtually uncontrolled operation. and monopoly trade. In 1618 Britain established its first fort in Gambia in West Africa and established itself on the Gold Coast (Gap), in 1637 France founded a fort at the mouth of Senegal, in 1652 the Netherlands captured the Cape of Good Hope area, establishing the Cape Colony there.
A century later, the British East India Company captured Bengal, one of the most economically developed parts of India, beginning the full colonial subordination of this great Asian country. In the last quarter of the XVIII century. the company severely suppressed French rivals, defeated the Mysore state in southern India, and waged wars of aggression against the Confederacy of Marathi principalities and the Sikh state, which still retained independence.
A sharp struggle between the British and Dutch East India Companies unfolded for possession of Indonesia – one of the richest countries in the East. But here the British had to give way, to sir. XVIII century. in the hands of the Dutch was almost all of Java and Sulawesi, a number of other islands, but finally the country was conquered by them only in the XIX century.
After North and South America in the last quarter of the eighteenth – first quarter of the nineteenth century. gained independence, the colonial interests of European states focused exclusively on the East and Africa. It was there that colonialism reached its highest prosperity and power, it was there that the disintegration of the world colonial system began and ended.
In 1849, after a long bloody war, the British East India Company conquered the Principality of Punjab, thus ending its subjugation to India. This opened the way for London to the northwest, to Afghanistan, and to the southeast – to Burma. After the Anglo-Afghan wars of 1838-1842 and 1878-1881, Kabul’s foreign policy came under British control, but the colonizers were unable to achieve full conquest of Afghanistan. However, as a result of the first (1824-1826) and second (1852-1853) Anglo-Burmese wars, which were waged by the East India Company by mercenary Indian soldiers under the command of British officers, the southern part of Burma was captured. In the 80’s of the XIX century. Britain completely subjugated this country.
From the end of the XVIII century. British expansion intensified in Southeast Asia, where London managed to oust the Portuguese from the Sultanate of Malacca. In 1819, a naval base was established in Singapore, which became the main British stronghold in this part of the world, and in 1888 the British protectorates were Sabah and Sarawak in northern Kalimantan.
France also tried to keep up with Britain. XIX century captured Cambodia and South Vietnam and made them its colonies, and in 1885 forced weakened China to leave North Vietnam, establishing a protectorate over it. After that, Paris created the so-called. The Indochinese Union (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) led by the French Governor-General.
During the XIX – early. XX century It was colonized by Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy (in addition to the already existing Portuguese possessions and the Cape Colony, which during the Napoleonic Wars in 1806.